“Risks arising from defective and rejected goods are regularly occurred in international trade. The parties can limit their risks by negotiating contracts.“
Step 1: Agreement in time of goods inspection
The buyer has the right to inspect and reject goods which do not conform to the contract. Under certain circumstances, the buyer is entitled to cancel the contract even though the seller attempts to resolve such problems.
Several goods inspection periods:
The inspection helps detect easy-identified defective goods such as wrong type, broken or missing ones before the buyer accepts them. The defects liability period is a defined amount of time for hidden defects to come to light such as structural weaknesses, failure to operate at high or low temperature and high fuel consumption, etc.
Normally, the buyer will inspect the goods with a clear aim that if the goods do not conform to the specifications, the buyer is entitled to reject them and to cancel the contract. Therefore, the inspection before and after delivery must be closely negotiated on the rights and obligations of the parties.
Step 2: Determination in terms of goods guarantee and warranty
Exporting poor quality goods will entail cost for the repair or replacement of defective ones. To avoid this cost, the seller can apply one of two following forms to ensure the goods, in particular:
In the contract, the sellers will be liable for any defects of their goods in accordance with the defects liability provision, which is understood exactly as warranty.
Although those two terms mean different, guarantee is also known as warranty in most countries, which means the seller shall provide warrant for their own goods. However, in case the national law applicable to the contract clearly distinguishes those two terms, the use of guarantee may lead to a higher level of risk to the seller.
Step 3: Definition of defects
With regard to negotiation in terms of goods quality, the seller should focus on every detail stated in the goods description. As not all goods can be qualified, defects liability provision shall help the parties to specify such defects at the moment of delivery. Indeed, the risk of disputes may mostly arise from hidden defects.
There are 3 types of defects, namely:
Such defects do not cover fair wear and tear or misuse by the buyers.
Step 4: Determination on defects liability period
Defects liability period is the period during which the buyer proves that the defect presents in the goods. The buyer is liable for proving such defect presenting in the goods within the agreed time. After this period, the seller will be disclaimed from liability for the problems arising from such defects.
Step 5: Negotiation on how the seller cure the defects
The right of the seller in curing the defects after delivery should be clearly stated if the parties do not wish to have any disputes on this issue. Since the law usually regulates in the a way that is more favorable for the buyer than the seller, the seller is entitled to apply the right to either repair or restore such defective goods in a positive direction, which shall brought about convenience for both parties.
According to the Vienna Convention on the International Sales of Goods, even after the time for delivery, the seller may remedy the damage in a quick manner, bear all reasonable cost resulted from the breach of contract without causing any more inconvenience to the buyer.